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Islam in the Middle Ages

Islam religion started  during the 7th century in Arabia, a desert area inhabited by different tribes which fighters each other and there was not a political, cultural or religious unity.

Muhammad the founder of Islam.

Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca into a family of rich merchants. He learned about two monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity and started to preach a new religion.The beginning of Islam is in 622 when Muhammad escaped from Mecca to Medina , this is known as Hegira year.
Islam means submission to God and the Koran is its sacred book.

Origin of Islam (CC0)

This religion has five pillars:
Shahadah, to testify that there is no other God that Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
Salah, to pray five times a day .
Hajj, to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least one in their lifetime.
Sawm, to fast during the month of Ramadan .
Zakah, to give aims to the poor.

The expansion of Islam

After Muhammad´s death, Muslims extended the new religion thanks to the Jihad or the Holy war, and a great empire was created from India to Spain.
The expansion of Islam had three main stages:
During the Orthodox caliphate , formed by Muhammad´s relatives, the Muslims conquered Syria, Palestine, Persia and Egypt
The next stage was the Umayyad Caliphate, the capital was moved to Damascus. Islam expanded through northern Africa and conquered the Iberian peninsula.

Expansion of Islam (CC0)


This dynasty was taken of Abbasid dynasty. The capital was established in Bagdad Internal fights made it weaker and finally in the half of the 13th century the Arabs were substituted by Turks as the main people in the islamic world.

Islamic civilisation

Islamic was a great empire joined by its religion, its language ( Arab language ) and its economy. Agriculture, craftsmanship developed and specially trade increased because of a lot of commercial routes by sea and earth. Many inventions made possible  the improvement of trade like compass.

Other important inventions of Arabs were the arabic numbers and the use of zero , the algebra and important contributions to Medicine.
Islam was an urban civilization, Baghdad, Damascus or Cairo were the most important cities.

The souk or market was the town centre and the alcazaba was its citadel . The most important buildings of an islamic city were the mosque, the religious building, and the palace.

Mosquee (CC0)

Islamic buildings were decorated with geometric and vegetable motives because human figures was not allowed by religious rules.


Pregunta 1

Mosque is a religious building

Pregunta 2

Muhammad was born in the city of Medina.

Pregunta 3

Abbasid dynasty was replaced by Umayyad dynasty.

Pregunta 4

Iberian peninsula was conquered during Umayyad dynasty

Pregunta 5

Arabs replaced Turks as main people of the islamic world.

Pregunta 6

The compass made possible the improvement of the agriculture.

Pregunta 7

Religious buildings are decorated with human figures in islamic world.

Pregunta 8

The souk was the city centre in islamic cities.

Pregunta 9

Arabs created a empire from India to Spain.


Read and complete

A is a place of for , or of the religion of Islam. The first mosque was the courtyard in the home of , Islam's founder. Today many mosques are large with beautiful towers and .

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Read complete

Islamic was a great joined by its religion, its ( Arab language ) and its economy. Agriculture, developed and specially trade increased because of a lot of routes by sea and earth. Many inventions made possible  the of trade like .

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